National Bank of Poland in the report: „The balance of payments of Rzeczpospolita in the fourth quarter of year 2015” has published the research conducted on the Ukrainians working in Poland. Between August and December 2015, 710 citizens of Ukraine were employed in Mazowieckie Voivodeship, Warsaw Metropolitan Area and towns specialised in farm produce. The research was led by Center of Migration Research with using the Respondent Driven Sampling method (RDS).
Why did National Bank of Poland become interested in the Ukrainians? Because a matter of salaries was a subject of analysis. People working in Poland for a shorter period of time than a year earned 2.4 billion Polish Zloty (it’s the growth of 24,7% when comparing to the previous year). And here comes an interesting thing: almost the whole growth applied to the citizens of Ukraine, whose salaries in the mentioned period of time were amounted to 2.2 billion Polish Zloty (which makes 92% of total).
The most important conclusions
Regarding the Ukrainian migrants working in Poland, one needs to differentiate two groups: the first one consisting of the people who were already in Poland when the conflict with Russia erupted (until the end of 2013) and the second one with the people since 2014.
The results of the pursued research confirmed the hypothesis of the economic migration’s circular characteristic. The most experienced migrants, who participated in the survey, were for the first time in our country already in the 90’s. An ordinary Ukrainian migrant has been to Poland eleven times.
In extreme cases, a migrant could come to Poland even two or three times a year. The average length of time he or she was in Poland is a little longer than five months.
The rapid growth of a number of registered declarations has been tracked since 2014 and is the result of a new group of migrants coming to Poland after the eruption of the armed conflict in eastern Ukraine, as well as the deterioration of the economic situation in this country (which is in 2014 or later). The group of such people comprised 41,4% of the surveyed population.
A new wave of immigration has totally different structure of people than those who visit Poland on the regular basis. A much bigger part of the group are men (57,9% among just-arrived immigrants to 32,9% among the experienced migrants), the younger people dominate (the average of the age is 32,8 years old to 42,8), the people from eastern Ukraine (where the armed conflict takes place) have a larger share (28,4% to 6,3%).
Most of the migrants worked on the basis of a registered declaration at the employer about entrusting work to a foreigner (62,6%). A common procedure is making new registrations for people who received already such a declaration, for instance by changing a job. Preliminary estimations show that there is 1,22 of a registered declaration per one person.</i>
At the moment of the survey 93,5% of the participants were active on the Polish job market (the rest were searching for a job and only 1,2% weren’t interested in being employed), while the half of them worked on a full-time basis and the second half worked part-time. Most of the migrants in Poland does simple work (94,5%).
In most cases the migrants found employment in households (37,6%), construction, finish and repair services (23,6%), as well as in agriculture (19,3%). The meaningful differentiation is noticeable in the structure of sex in the particular sectors. Almost only women work at the household services area, whereas almost only men are employed in repair and building industry.
The average monthly salaries earned by the migrants were almost identical and they oscillated around 2000 Polish Zloty netto, with their value being quite similar to each other in different sectors. Quite a common appearance is also receiving non-financial benefits by the migrants, for example in terms of accommodation, sustenance or transport to/from work, which makes saving a lion’s share of earnings easier.
Statistically, a migrant from Ukraine pays 34,2% of his/her earnings for living (rent for a flat, energy and media, food, transport etc.). The rest of money is either saved or sent on board to Ukraine.
Up to 66,4% of the respondents declared transferring money to Ukraine. Most frequently they take money with them, when they go to Ukraine (60,0%), send by specialized companies (17,1%) or by people they trust (13,5%). There is also a group of migrants who don’t send any money on board but they gather savings which they will take when returning home.
Almost a half among the migrants making money transfers (42,3%) sends them on average every two or three months. However, a little more than a fifth (22,2%) send their savings once a month or more often.
Ukrainian students are the important participants on the Polish job market. Almost a half of
them – 49,6% – study and work at the same time (18,4% work full-time; 31,2% work on a part-time basis), the other 33.6% are not active vocationally but they are ready to take up a job. In most cases they work in trade (26,3%) or hotel business and catering (20,0%); their salaries are lower than in the case of the typical financial immigrants from Ukraine and they are about 1600 Polish Zloty per month.
Developed by DT on the basis of NBP report: The balance of payments of Rzeczpospolita in the fourth quarter of year 2015
(translation: Kinga Mizera)